Brève histoire de la Takeda Ryu
Une tradition millénaire
Brève histoire de la Takeda Ryu
Une tradition millénaire
Notre connaissance de l'art de l'aiki tel que l'enseigne l'école de Takeda remonte à une chronique du XIIe siècle, mais la naissance de cet art est encore antérieure. Soke Nakamura, le grand maître et héritier actuel de l'école, cite dans son livre "aïkido" ces témoignages écrits de l'école Takeda: "dans la 27ème année de règne du 12e Tenno (empereur) du nom de Keigo, eut lieu une rébellion de la caste des kumaso. L'héritier du trône de Yamato (nom du royaume embryonnaire du futur Japon), Yamato Taker No Mikoto, reçut l'ordre de mener une expédition punitive. En chemin, il se soumit a une cérémonie de purification a la cascade de kamiyo. Posant les pieds sur le fond rocheux de la chute, il s'emplit de la puissance de l'esprit et concentra toute la force de son corps dans l'extrémité de ses doigts. Tourné vers le ciel, il porta plusieurs coups vers le haut, après quoi il laissa retomber ses mains en exécutant des mouvements vigoureux.
Origine de l'aiki
Après avoir effectué ces gestes, le prince prit la décision d'attaquer les kumaso. Déguisé en femme, il se glissa dans le camp ennemi et surprit le chef des kumaso dans son sommeil. Lorsque celui-ci voulu l'attaquer, le prince écarta les bras, invoqua à nouveau la force de l'esprit, et jeta le chef des kumaso a terre après lui avoir écarter les bras. Ce geste passe pour être à la source mythique de l'aiki. Par la suite, le prince se soumit à un rigoureux apprentissage, puis transmit ses connaissances à Takeda no Kami no Mikoto, officier alors en charge de la défense du palais. Ce savoir passa du sixième fils de l'empereur Seiwa, Sadazumi, à son fils Tsunemoto, puis au père de célèbre général Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, ce dernier étant considéré comme le véritable fondateur de l'aiki . On raconte, dans le anciens récits, que du temps de l'empereur Seiwa et surtout de son fils Sadazumi , on donnait des coups a main nue comme avec un sabre sur les parties du corps peu ou pas protégés par la cuirasse. Ces techniques sont encore aujourd'hui l’un des éléments caractéristiques de l'aïkido du style Takeda dans la forme de l'aïki uchi (techniques de frappe de l'aiki). Sous le règne du général Yoshimitsu, issu du clan puissant des Minamoto qui avait fondé le premier shogunat de Kamakura, les techniques de l'aiki furent approfondies et rassemblées de façon systématique.
Son fils Yoshikyo enrichit l'art du combat de pratiques nouvelles qui pouvaient s'utiliser contre le sabre long ou court. Afin d’exercer ses soldats, il les faisait combattre a mains nues contre des guerriers maîtrisant parfaitement l'art du sabre, du naginata* ou d'autres armes de différentes longueurs. Cela leur permettait d'acquérir un coup d'œil rapide et sûr, de perfectionner la coordination du regard et des mouvements du corps, et d'apprendre en outre à évaluer les distances avec précision pour pouvoir esquiver très rapidement, une méthode déjà partiellement en usage sous Tsunemoto. Yoshikyo reçut pour mission d'aller protéger son pays dans la province de Kaï (aujourd'hui préfecture de Yamanashi). Il s'y installa et pris le nom de Takeda. Dès lors, les arts martiaux de ce clan, devenus en quelque sorte un héritage inaliénable, se pratiquèrent sous le nom de Takeda Ryu aïki no jutsu, ce qui signifie « l'art de l'aiki de l'école Takeda ».
Le XVIe siecle et au-delà...
Le XVIe siècle, troublé par d’effroyables guerres civiles, connait a la fois l'apogée et le déclin de la suprématie du clan dont le plus célèbre daimyô (seigneur) n’est autre que l’illustre Takeda Shingen. C'est aussi l'époque a laquelle se forme une deuxième branche de cette tradition qui comme la ligne d'origine (genryu) s'est conservée jusqu'a nos jours.
Dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle, Nobutora est le chef de la famille des Takeda. Il confie vers 1570 le livre relatant la tradition de l'école Takeda, non pas à son fils Shingen, mais à son neuvième fils Nobutomo, qui a son tour le léguera à son fils Katsuchi. Ce dernier, parti pour Echizen (Fukuoka) entrera au service du clan des Kuroda, avant de transmettre à ses descendants la tradition de la Takeda Ryu, permettant ainsi de conserver la ligne originelle de l'école Takeda jusqu'a nos jours.
History of Nihon Aikido Renmei and its progress
“INTRODUCTION TO AIKIDO”
By Hisashi NAKAMURA
Published by Seibido Shuppan in 1987
From page 25 to 34 provisionally translated by Takami Kachi
(* is the comments by the translator)
8. History of Nihon Aikido Renmei* (*Nihon Aikido Federation) and its progress
Nihon Aikido Renmei (Takedaryu Nakamuraha) has succeeded the flow of “Takedaryu Aiki no Jutsu” which was regarded as an esoteric martial arts of Takeda family, Kai Genji* (*Genji = Minamoto family).
“Kai Genji, Takeda family” started when Yoshikiyo, the second son of Shiragi Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, was ordered to defend Kai country. Shiragi Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu was the younger brother of Hachimantaro Minamoto no Yoshiie* (*1039 －1106A.D.) who was a descendant of Seiwa Genji Mitsunaka who’s ancestor was Seiwa Tenno* (Emperor Seiwa)(*850 – 880A.D.). Only “Takedaryu” Bugei* (*Samurai arts) that was succeeded by Takeda family, is said as the origin of Bujutsu and many contemporary schools of Bujutsu started with Takedaryu.
One can list up the main categories of Takedaryu as “Kyuba* (*bow on horseback) no Jutsu,” “Tachiuchi no Jutsu” and “Aiki no Jutsu,” but there are much more categories which have been succeeded by Takedaryu Nakamuraha. They are called today Aikido, Iaido, Jodo, Jukempo, Kendo, Shuriken, Shugijutsu, Kanpo Iho* (*old Chinese medicine), Kiba Batto and Bajo Kumiuchi which are a part of Kyuba no Jutsu. Above all, Aikido (Aiki no Jutsu), which was founded by Yamato Takeru no Mikoto, originated by Shiragi Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, is one of the greatest Bugei.
- BRANCH ROAD OF DESTINY:
In autumn in 1948, having jumped from Shinshu* (*Nagano prefecture) to one of my aunts living in Kitakyushu, I found a Dojo of Takedaryu in Yagurayama in Nakahara, Kokura-ku, Kitakyushu.
In spring in 1950, I knocked the door of Takedaryu and was accepted to enter the school by Soke, Oba Ichio. Entering the school of Takedaryu was so severe at that time that I needed two guarantors. The rule book for the entrance said, “Any accidents occurred in Dojo shall not be claimed to Dojo.” “Any techniques* (*Waza) learnt in Dojo shall NEVER disclosed to outside people including the students’ family members.” Further, the tuition was very expensive and the monthly fee was a quarter of monthly salary of average office workers who were newly recruited from college. Because I had of course understood and accepted the above conditions before the entrance, I was very happy to enter the Dojo. Since this moment, it seems that I was loaded with the destiny to go with Budo for my whole life.
In 1953, after being a Sotodeshi* (* a student living outside of Dojo) for 3 years, I was finally accepted by Soke as Uchideshi* (*a student living inside of Dojo together with Soke). Around this time, having debouched to Tokyo, Soke Oba built Takedaryu Honbu Dojo “Seibuden” in Matsubara, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. Trying to promote Budo, he organized Nihon Budo Renmei.
In autumn in 1956, since Morimoto Shihandai* (* deputy Shihan) who had been acting for Soke Oba, had to leave Takedaryu and to return home due to his family matters, I came to Tokyo to act in place of Morimoto Shihandai. My long-cherished dream to come to Seibuden was then fulfilled at last.
However, 3 years later, in late 1959, Soke Oba suddenly passed away due to a disease. And thereafter, Seibuden also became unpopular. As I had no other talent, I would take only one way to go ahead.
In spring in 1960, I made up my mind to go ahead with Budo for all my life and I became independent.
- INSATIABLE PROCESSES:
In March 1960, I rented Nakagawa Judojo in Hanazonocho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo and started with the name of “Budokai.” But, in next year, 1961, Nakagawa Judojo was going to be renovated and I had to move. I found Kitabayashi Judojo in Takadanobaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo and rented it so that I could make every effort to continue Keiko.
In December 1960 Aikido Club was born in Rikkyo University and in May 1961, Aikido Club was born in Nihon University which started to form the association somehow or another thanks to our efforts.
In October 1963, we welcomed Mr.Osamu Kato (current director, Nihon Univ.) as the president of “Nihon Aikido Renmei” consisting of “Honbu Budokai Aikido” “Aikido Club of Rikkyo University” and “Aikido Club of Nihon University.”
In November 1964, having gained strength by the formation of new association, we could open “the 1st Aikido Tournament” at Shinjuku Gymnasium. On the other hand, as the popularity of Judo considerably declined in general, Kitabayashi Judojo finally had to be closed. Then I restarted to look for other Dojo and, by the introduction of my friend, I found a Dojo in Asakusa, Taito-ku, Tokyo, called Tokueikan Dojo and could barely continue Keiko there. However, as the then members had gathered to the Dojo in Takadanobaba from the local areas, the numbers of members in the Dojo in Asakusa gradually decreased within 3 months. Then again, I started to look for a Dojo near Shinjuku area, and I was successful in finding one called Maeda Dojo in Waseda. We restarted Keiko at Maeda Dojo in March 1965 which was near Shinjuku only after moving to Asakusa 3 months before.
After the above events, we practiced Keiko for two and half years at Maeda Dojo. During the period, various matters happened such as merger problem with Waseda, the technical improvement, the amendment of rules for Shiai, etc. We started to wish to have our own Dojo which we could use freely and the preparation was well under way.
In November 1967, we could finally open our own Dojo “Nihon Aikido Renmei Honbu Dojo” in a rented building in Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo thanks to the supporting fund donated by the many volunteers. With the opening of the Dojo which was listed in the telephone directory, we started to receive the requests for teaching from U.S.Military Camp Mitaka Green Park, SECOM Co., Ltd. and Denden Aiki Jodo Club. In response to these activities, it was just the time for us to start to expose ourselves frequently in TV broadcasting.
In May 1968, Aikido Club was born in Tokyo Denki University.
In 1969 Aikido Club was born in Hokkaido University.
In May 1970, “Budokai” was renamed to “Nihon Sobudo Rengokai,” and at the same time Honbu Dojo changed the name to “Honbu Sobukan.”
In June 1970, “Nihon Sobudo Rengokai, Yudanshakai” made a start.
In September 1970, the first branch Dojo called Uguisudani Sobukan opened.
In November 1971, the title of “Aikido Tournament” were changed to “Zen Nihon Aikido Tournament*” (*or All Japan Aikido Tournament) as well as the venue from Shinjuku Gymnasium to Tokyo Gymnasium, and the 8th tournament was held in 1971. Thereafter it has been held always at Tokyo Gymnasium every year and it is the 22nd tournament this year* (*1987).
In June 1972, the second branch Dojo called “Shinagawa Sobukan” was opened under direct control of Honbu Dojo. In October 1972, the third branch Dojo called “Hokkaido Sobukan” was opened in Hokkaido also under direct control of Honbu Dojo. In November 1973, Chiba Sobukan was born as Nakamura Dojo.
In September 1975, “Nihon Children’s Aikido Club” was inaugurated, and “The 1st Tournament for Aikido for Children” was held at Gymnasium of National Stadium in Tokyo at the same time. Then, thereafter, it has been held every year and it was already the 12th tournament this year.
In April 1976, “Kameari Sobukan” Utsugi Dojo was opened. In May, “Nihon Aikido Gakusei* (*or Students) Renmei” started. In September 1976, “The 1st Tournament for Aikido for Students” was held at National Stadium which has been held also every year. It was already the 11th tournament this year.
In March 1977, “Saitama Sobukan” Sofue Dojo was opened.
Since April 1977, the monthly magazine called “Gekkan Sobu” has been published for 10 consecutive years.
On 11th February 1978, the day of The Commemoration of Founding of Nation, “Takedaryu Nakamuraha” was officially inaugurated.
In November 1978, “Sekishu Sobukan” Nakatani Dojo was opened in Shimane Prefecture.
In July 1979, “Meguro Sobukan” Fujiwara Dojo and in November “Kawagoe Sobukan” Kamiyama Dojo were opened one after another.
In October 1980, “Hanshikai” started.
In May 1981, “Nanso Sobukan” Morita Dojo was opened.
In March 1983, “Sakado Sobukan” Toyoshima Dojo, and in April “Kamifukuoka Sobukan” were opened in turn.
In April 1984, “Aizu-Wakamatsu Sobukan” started in Aizu-Wakamatsu in Fukushima Prefecture.
In December 1984, after very hard time of 25 years, just before the 25th anniversary, the construction work of Nihon Sobudo Rengokai “Nihon Sobukan” was completed and named Nihon Aikido Renmei Honbu Dojo. It was opened on 11th February 1985 that is the day of The Commemoration of Founding of Nation, after as long as 18 years in Yoyogi.
En savoir plus : https://www.takedabudo.com/takeda-ryu/